Friday, November 29, 2013
Effect of comprehensive lifestyle changes on telomerase activity and
telomere length in men with biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer:
5-year follow-up of a descriptive pilot study
Prof Dean Ornish MD et al
Telomere shortness in human beings is a prognostic marker of ageing,
disease, and premature morbidity. We previously found an association
between 3 months of comprehensive lifestyle changes and increased
telomerase activity in human immune-system cells. We followed up
participants to investigate long-term effects.
This follow-up study compared ten men and 25 external controls who had
biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer and had chosen to undergo active
surveillance. Eligible participants were enrolled between 2003 and 2007
from previous studies and selected according to the same criteria. Men
in the intervention group followed a programme of comprehensive
lifestyle changes (diet, activity, stress management, and social
support), and the men in the control group underwent active surveillance
alone. We took blood samples at 5 years and compared relative telomere
length and telomerase enzymatic activity per viable cell with those at
baseline, and assessed their relation to the degree of lifestyle changes.
Relative telomere length increased from baseline by a median of 0·06
telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S)units (IQR—0·05 to 0·11) in the
lifestyle intervention group, but decreased in the control group (−0·03
T/S units, −0·05 to 0·03, difference p=0·03). When data from the two
groups were combined, adherence to lifestyle changes was significantly
associated with relative telomere length after adjustment for age and
the length of follow-up (for each percentage point increase in lifestyle
adherence score, T/S units increased by 0·07, 95% CI 0·02—0·12,
p=0·005). At 5 years, telomerase activity had decreased from baseline by
0·25 (—2·25 to 2·23) units in the lifestyle intervention group, and by
1·08 (—3·25 to 1·86) units in the control group (p=0·64), and was not
associated with adherence to lifestyle changes (relative risk 0·93, 95%
CI 0·72—1·20, p=0·57).
Our comprehensive lifestyle intervention was associated with increases
in relative telomere length after 5 years of follow-up, compared with
controls, in this small pilot study. Larger randomised controlled trials
are warranted to confirm this finding.
Monday, July 29, 2013
Adding foods rich in specific amino and fatty acids to the diets of youth with Type 1 diabetes kept them producing some of their own insulin for up to two years after diagnosis, said researchers at the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill."
The youth still required supplemental insulin, but they may have reduced risk of diabetes complications by continuing to produce some of their own insulin, said Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, professor of nutrition at Gillings and medicine at UNC's School of Medicine, who led the study of more than 1,300 youth. "This also opens the door for a new approach that could really benefit the lives of these children."
The study, "Nutritional Factors and Preservation of C-Peptide in Youth with Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes," was published in the July 2013 issue of the journal Diabetes Care.
The participating youngsters, ranging from toddlers up to age 20, are part of a multi-center "SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth," the largest U.S. study of childhood diabetes. Mayer-Davis is national co-chair of SEARCH, funded by the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.
Type 1 diabetes is almost always diagnosed between infancy and young adulthood, according to the American Diabetes Association. The body's pancreas is unable to produce adequate amounts of the hormone insulin, required to metabolize food properly and create energy for the body's cells.
Leucine, one of the branched-chain amino acids researchers looked at, is known to stimulate secretion. It is found in dairy products, meats, soy products, eggs, nuts and products made with whole wheat. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are found in fatty fish such as salmon.
The researchers analyzed how much (if any) insulin the subjects were producing up to two years after their diagnosis and compared this with nutritional intake.
Mayer-Davis noted the study reflects subjects eating actual foods rich in these nutrients, not taking supplements.
Wednesday, March 06, 2013
Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians
Objective: The objective was to examine the association of a vegetarian diet with risk of incident (nonfatal and fatal) IHD.
Design: A total of 44,561 men and women living in England and Scotland who were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)Oxford study, of whom 34% consumed a vegetarian diet at baseline, were part of the analysis. Incident cases of IHD were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Serum lipids and blood pressure measurements were available for 1519 noncases, who were matched to IHD cases by sex and age. IHD risk by vegetarian status was estimated by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.
Results: After an average follow-up of 11.6 y, there were 1235 IHD cases (1066 hospital admissions and 169 deaths). Compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarians had a lower mean BMI [in kg/m2; −1.2 (95% CI: −1.3, −1.1)], non-HDL-cholesterol concentration [−0.45 (95% CI: −0.60, −0.30) mmol/L], and systolic blood pressure [−3.3 (95% CI: −5.9, −0.7) mm Hg]. Vegetarians had a 32% lower risk (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.81) of IHD than did nonvegetarians, which was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for BMI and did not differ materially by sex, age, BMI, smoking, or the presence of IHD risk factors.
Conclusion: Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower IHD risk, a finding that is probably mediated by differences in non-HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure.